安徽股票配资公司盛世古董下的清代宫廷暖炉精品推荐

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盛世古董下的清代宫廷暖炉精品推荐

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【名称】:清代宫廷暖炉

【规格】 :上口:135.4mm 底部:16.5mm 重:1249g

[Name]: Palace Heating Furnace in Qing Dynasty

[Specification] Top: 135.4mm Bottom: 16.5mm Weight: 1249g


手炉的制作工艺,在明清时期达到了最高峰。晚明的嘉兴名匠张鸣岐,就是一代制炉顶级名家,他的作品人称“张炉”,花纹精细、铜质匀净,堪称工艺品中的瑰宝。尤其不可思议的是纵然炉中炭火烧得再旺,却毫不烫手,其热量恰到好处,让使用者倍感舒适,可见其登峰造极。以至于当时的大画家项墨林大加赞叹,专请张鸣岐为他制炉,于是 “张炉”的声誉响彻了大江南北。到了清代,手炉传入皇宫后一跃成为御用品而身价百倍,其制作工艺更加多姿多彩,材质多了漆器、珐琅等品种,工艺上还采用了掐丝珐琅。民国时期的手炉,其制作趋于简单,形状和纹饰开始单一化。后来随着时代的发展,新式取暖工具不断涌现,手炉渐渐地退出了大众的生活舞台。

如今收藏工艺精巧的手炉,多是享受赏玩之乐。玩赏的方式可以有许多种,一是拿在手中盘玩,日久之后手炉会变得更加古朴光润。二是与香炉、熏炉等一起来陈列观赏。三是可用来插花,以增添玩炉的情趣。

过去的读书人,冬天在私塾或书房里读书,手脚会很冷,以致妨碍书写绘画;官宦贵人,冬天上衙门办公或出门访友,乘车坐轿也不能烤火取暖。于是有人设计了一种专门捧在手上取暖、却不会烧坏周遭物品的手炉,在后来成为文房、民间乃至旧时宫廷广泛使用的取暖用具。

手炉,形制如小瓜大小,可随手提动,这就比火盆、火炕等取暖工具方便得多。且古代人宽袖大袍,手炉可置于袖中或怀中带着,所以又有“袖炉”、“捧炉”的雅称,也亲昵不少。过去的读书人,有了手炉,就能暖手疏血,书写绘画两不误,正是“纵使诗家寒到骨,阳春腕底已生姿”。

据说,手炉的出现启发自火炉、火盆。但不同于火炉无炳,只能围炉夜话,手炉大都有提梁,且小巧玲珑,高、长和宽度不过几厘米到十几厘米,与精巧的紫砂壶略有类似,也算是盈盈可握了。手炉的结构很简单,由炉身、炉底、炉盖(炉罩)、提梁(提柄)组成。炉身有两层,分外壳和内胆。内胆多为铜制,内放燃炭,以产生热气,而外壳包裹内胆,既能保存内胆的热量,又能通过内外两层之间的空气传导,将热量由内胆口沿上的镂空炉盖(炉罩)散发出来。炉火不会一盖即灭,又不会太旺、抚之烫手。还能透过盖子的空隙,侍弄炭火,散热原理相当高明。

早期的炉身较为简陋,还留有铸瘤等痕迹。想来,先人们冬日严寒,一炉在手,先解决过冬问题再说,美观倒在其次了。或许在后来,手炉愈来愈熟悉,且年年冬季必随先人们左右时,先人们才有了“美化”它的心思。

于是,手炉原先以圆形和椭圆形最常见,后又出现了八角形、方形、腰形、花篮形、南瓜形、梅花形、海棠形、龟背形等形状,更是让盈握感充足。而作为散热区的炉盖,也常常是手艺人穷极工巧的发挥区域,他们将各种精美的几何图形,雕琢得犹如古典园林中的花墙镂窗一般雅致,像五蝶捧寿、梅兰竹菊、喜鹊绕梅等众多纹形和素材都曾用到,又能与气孔完美结合在一起;而炉身,手艺人也不会“浪费”,常雕镂錾刻着山水人物与花鸟奇珍的图画,有的甚至还使用了错金错银、烧蓝及镶嵌银丝等特种工艺,使手炉炉身上的图画更具立体感,更加光彩耀人;也有将诗书画印刻于其上,使手炉一跃而成了很多文人的案头清玩。

手炉,俨然成了既实用又能欣赏的艺术品,它们曾陪伴多少清贫的文人度过寒冷的耿耿长夜,又在枯燥的读书生涯中,平添了几许“红袖添香添暖”的温情。

The production technology of the hand stove reached its peak in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Zhang Mingqi, a famous craftsman in Jiaxing in the late Ming Dynasty, is a top-ranking master of furnace making. His works are called "Zhang Furnace". They have fine patterns and uniform copper, which can be regarded as a gem in handicraft. Especially incredible is that even if the stove burns charcoal again vigorously, but not hot hands, its heat is just right, so that users feel more comfortable, it can be seen that its peak. As a result, the great painter Xiang Meilin praised him and invited Zhang Mingqi to make stoves for him, so the reputation of "Zhang Furnace" was well known in the north and south of the Yangtze River. In the Qing Dynasty, the handstove was introduced into the Imperial Palace and became a royal article with a price of 100 times. Its production process was more colorful, the material was more lacquerware, enamel and other varieties, and the enamel was also used in the process. During the period of the Republic of China, the production of hand stoves tended to be simple, and the shape and decoration began to be simplified. Later, with the development of the times, new heating tools continue to emerge, and hand stoves gradually withdraw from the public life stage.

Nowadays, the handicraft stoves are mostly enjoyed. There are many ways to enjoy it. One is to play with a tray in hand. Over time, the stove will become more simple and smooth. The second is to display with incense burners and smoking furnaces. Third, it can be used to arrange flowers to increase the fun of playing with stoves.

In the past, when people read in private schools or study in winter, their hands and feet would be very cold, which would hinder their writing and painting; when officials and nobles went to the Yamen office or visited friends in winter, they could not heat themselves by car or sedan chair. So someone designed a kind of hand stove which was held in hand to keep warm, but could not burn the surrounding articles. It became a widely used heating appliance in the study, the folk and even the old court.

The hand stove, shaped like a small melon, can be handled at will, which is much more convenient than the fire basin, fire Kang and other heating tools. And the ancient people's wide-sleeved robes, hand stoves can be placed in the sleeves or bosom with, so there are "sleeve stoves" and "holding stoves" nicknamed, but also intimate. In the past, when a reader had a hand stove, he could warm his hands and dredge blood, and write and paint correctly. It was precisely "even if a poet is cold to the bone, the bottom of his wrist has taken shape in spring".

It is said that the emergence of hand stoves inspired from stoves and braziers. But unlike the stove without stove, it can only talk around the stove at night. Most of the stoves have lifting beams, and they are small and exquisite. Their height, length and width are only a few centimeters to a dozen centimeters. They are slightly similar to the delicate purple clay pot, and they are also very handy. The structure of the hand furnace is very simple. It consists of the hearth, bottom, cover (hood) and lifting beam (handle). The furnace body has two layers, which are shell and inner liner. The inner gallbladder is mostly made of copper. The inner gallbladder is fired with charcoal to generate hot gas. The outer shell encapsulates the inner gallbladder, which not only preserves the heat of the inner gallbladder, but also conducts the heat through the air between the inner and outer layers. The heat is emitted from the hollow furnace cover (hood) along the inner gallbladder mouth. The fire will not be extinguished as soon as it is covered, nor will it be too vigorous and hot to touch. It can also serve the charcoal fire through the gap of the lid, and the principle of heat dissipation is quite clever.

In the early stage, the furnace body was relatively simple, and there were still traces of cast tumors. Think of it, first people in the cold winter, a stove in hand, first to solve the winter problem, then, beauty is in the second place. Perhaps later, the hand stove became more and more familiar, and every winter must be left and right with the ancestors, the ancestors had the idea of "beautifying" it.

As a result, the hand stove was originally round and ellipse-shaped, and then appeared octagonal, square, waist-shaped, flower basket-shaped, pumpkin-shaped, plum-shaped, crabapple-shaped, turtle-shaped and other shapes, which made the sense of full grip. As a heat sink area, the furnace cover is often the area where craftsmen are extremely skillful. They carve out all kinds of exquisite geometric figures as elegant as the flower walls and windows in classical gardens. Many patterns and materials, such as five butterflies holding longevity, plum orchid, bamboo chrysanthemum and magpie winding plum, have been used and can be perfectly combined with stomata. And the furnace body, craftsmen will not "waste", often carved with pictures of landscape figures and rare flowers and birds, and some even used special crafts such as wrong gold and silver, burning blue and inlaid silver wire, so that the paintings on the furnace body have a more three-dimensional sense, more brilliant; and there are also poems and books engraved on it, so as to make the stove more glorious. In a leap, it has become a playful desk for many literati.

Hand stoves have become both practical and appreciable works of art. They have accompanied many impoverished literati through the long cold nights, and added some warmth of "red sleeves add fragrance and warmth" to their dull reading career.